Turner elaborated on the theme in his advanced history lectures and in a series of essays published over the next 25 years, published along with his initial paper as The Frontier in American History. The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching. He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism , a lack of interest in high culture , and violence. The frontier transformed Jeffersonian democracy into Jacksonian democracy. Cowboy cooking Anacostia Community Museum Archives.
In , medieval historian Carl Stephenson published an extended article refuting the Germanic germ theory. The question is whether their frontiers were powerful enough to overcome conservative central forces based in the metropolis. Nash, “The frontier thesis: Not the constitution but free land and an abundance of natural resources open to a fit people, made the democratic type of society in America for three centuries while it occupied its empire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
He asked why the Turnerian American character was limited to English settlements in the New World, and why the frontier did not produce that same character among Native Americans and Spaniards.
Slatta argues that the widespread popularization of Turner’s frontier thesis influenced popular histories, motion pictures, and novels, which characterize the West in terms of individualism, frontier violence, and rough justice.
According to Bancroft, the Germanic germs had spread across of all Western Europe by the Middle Ages and had reached their height. Notes to Other Users Teachers may want to familiarize themselves with the ideas in this essay: The most important aspect of the frontier to Turner is its effect on democracy. Historians, geographers, and social scientists have studied frontier-like conditions in other countries, with an eye on the Turnerian model.
Essays and Miscellany First ed.
Crucible of Empire – PBS Online
Frontier land was practically free for the taking. Turner never published a major book on the frontier for which he did 40 years of research. Views Read Edit View history. According to Turner, American progress has repeatedly undergone a cyclical process on the frontier line as society has needed to redevelop with its movement westward. Micheaux promoted the West as a place where blacks could experience less institutionalized forms of racism and earn economic success through hard work and perseverance.
Disneyland ‘s Frontierland of the mid to late 20th century reflected the myth of rugged individualism that celebrated what was perceived to be the American heritage.
The Wild West? APUSH
The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such thfsis revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching. They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier.
However, the work of historians during the s—s, some of whom sought to bury Turner’s conception of the frontier, and others who sought to spare the concept but with nuance, have done much to apuxh Western myths in context. They argue that, “Frontier imagery motivates Fermilab physicists, and a rhetoric remarkably similar to that of Turner helped them secure support for their research.
Evidently, the belief that free political institutions of the United States spawned in ancient Germanic forests endured well into tunrers s. Laura Bullion National Portrait Gallery.
Successive generations moved further inland, shifting the lines of settlement and wilderness, but preserving the essential tension between the two. What were the realities of life on the frontier in the late 19th and early 20th century? They emphasized the values of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, tjesis the resolution of social, economic, and political issues.
Progress or Lost Freedom. Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups.
Each side, the Westerners and the native savages, struggled for mastery of the land through violence. Every generation moved further west and became more American, more democratic, and more intolerant of hierarchy.
Students will want to read Turner’s essay and answer the attached questions.
Yen, “Western Frontier or Feudal Society: Instead Fermilab’s planners sought to return to Turnerian themes. The West has always held a special place in American culture. The story of a cowboy National Museum of American History. In spite of this, Turner laments, the frontier has received little serious study from historians and economists.
A historical jackosn Journal of the West Oct 34 4 pp. The frontier thesis is one of the most influential documents on the American west today.
Settling Fermilab, —,” Illinois Historical Journal 88 1 pp.